Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act; a law protecting consumers from abuses during the residential real estate purchase and loan process by requiring lenders to disclose all settlement costs, practices, and relationships

The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, (known as "RESPA"), was an Act passed by the United States Congress in 1974. It is codified at Title 12, Chapter 27 of the United States Code, 12 U. S. C.  § 2601–2617. It was created because various companies associated with the buying and selling of real estate, such as lenders, real estate agents, construction companies and title insurance companies were often engaging in providing undisclosed kickbacks to each other, inflating the costs of real estate transactions and obscuring price competition by facilitating bait-and-switch tactics. For example, a lender advertising a home loan might have advertised the loan with a 5% interest rate, but then when one applies for the loan one is told that one must use the lender's affiliated title insurance company and pay $5,000 for the service, whereas the normal rate is $1,000. The title company would then have paid $4,000 to the lender. This was made illegal. The reason is to make prices for the services clear so as to allow price competition by consumer demand and to thereby drive down prices. The Act prohibits kickbacks between lenders and third-party settlement service agents in the real estate settlement process (Section 8 of RESPA). Even reciprocal referrals among these types of professions could be construed in court as a violation of the law of RESPA. It requires lenders to provide a good faith estimate for all the approximate costs of a particular loan and finally a HUD-1 (for purchase real estate loans) or a HUD-1A (for refinances of real estate loans) at the closing of the real estate loan. The final HUD-1 or HUD-1A allows the borrower to know specifically the costs of the loan and to whom the fees are being allotted. While both the HUD-1 and HUD-1A serve to disclose all fees, costs and charges to both the buyer and seller involved in a real estate transaction,That said, a buyer or seller would be wise to rely upon an experienced professional such as an attorney or real estate broker to help avoid costly mistakes. If the borrower believes there is an error in the mortgage account, he or she can make a "qualified written request" to the loan servicer. The request must be in writing, identify the borrower by name and account, and include a statement of reasons why the borrower believes the account is in error. The request should include the words "qualified written request". It cannot be written on the payment coupon, but must be on a separate piece of paper. The Department of Housing and Urban Development provides a sample letter. The servicer must acknowledge receipt of the request within 20 business days. The servicer then has 60 business days (from the request) to take action on the request. The servicer has to either provide a written notification that the error has been corrected, or provide a written explanation as to why the servicer believes the account is correct. Either way, the servicer has to provide the name and telephone number of a person with whom the borrower can discuss the matter. The servicer cannot provide information to any credit agency regarding any overdue payment during the 60 day period. If the servicer fails to comply with the "qualified written request", the borrower is entitled to actual damages, up to $1000 of additional damages if there is a pattern of noncompliance, costs and attorneys fees. However, critics say that kickbacks still occur. For example, lenders often provide captive insurance to the title insurance companies they work with, which critics say is essentially a kickback mechanism. Others counter that economically the transaction is a zero sum game, where if the kickback were forbidden, a lender would simply charge higher prices. One of the core elements of the debate is the fact that customers overwhelmingly go with the default service providers associated with a lender or a real estate agent, even though they sign documents explicitly stating that they can choose to use any service provider. Some say that if the profits of the service providers were truly excessive or if the price of the services were excessively inflated because of illegal or quasi-legal kickbacks, then at some point non-affiliated service providers would attempt to target consumers directly with lower prices to entice them to choose the unaffiliated provider. There have been various proposals to modify the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. One proposal is to change the "open architecture" system currently in place, where a customer can choose to use any service provider for each service, to one where the services are bundled, but where the real estate agent or lender must pay directly for all other costs. Under this system, lenders, who have more buying power, would more aggressively seek the lowest price for real estate settlement services.